Methods For Water Purification
Methods For Water Purification
The demand for more water by ever growing cities and settlements has placed an extraordinary burden on the water treatment industry to deliver huge volumes of water that are safe for human use. This demand has lead the search for better and more efficient means to purify water in order meet public health standards while continuing to maintain low operating costs. What follows is a summary of available methods for water purification that are in place in various areas in the world bringing safe and usable domestic and industrial water to millions of people.
In the case of municipal water treatment, the primary methods of water purification are filtration and chlorination. You might have noticed quite easily everytime you open the tap; the smell of chlorine is one of the most obvious clues that water has been treated before it gets to your home. Filtration is primarily done with the use of a screen that filters particles up to 140 microns small, sufficient to take away the smallest suspended solids leaving only biological contaminants behind.
After filtration the water stream is then passed through a water basin that adds chlorine into the water to disinfect it and kill bacteria, viruses and other biological contaminants. These methods of water purification are preferred at this stage because they are cheap and easy to maintain. Screens only need the occasional cleaning and replacement while chlorine dosing is easily done by valve control. As such, municipal water treatment facilities are able to deliver safe water at low operating costs.
Industrial uses of water require more demanding methods of water purification. Chemical treatment might be necessary to adjust the pH or remove extra alkalines dissolved in the water. Dissolved alkalines can form salts which can clog industrial pipes, hence they need to be removed prior to use. These methods of water purification include dispersants which disrupt scale formation and preventing growth of fouling crystals in industrial pipes or chelating agents which are used to prevent the deposition of industrially harmful Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe and Al ions.
Water treatment facilities can also choose from a variety of filtration agents depending on the degree of separation required. Some of the more common methods for water purification via filtration use either sand filters, neutralizing filters, oxidizing filter, activated carbon filters, dual or multi-media filters, and many others. Aside from the degree of purification achieved, the type of filter is also critical in determining the output of a facility.
With the current available technologies leading to various methods for water purification, no effort is spared in making sure that output water from any facility is compliant with the strictest standards for public health or industrial application. Users can be assured of the highest water quality possible because they know the latest technologies in state-of-the-art facilities put their water to the most stringent of treatment applications before it gets to the tap.
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