Water Purification Process
Water Purification Process
Clean drinking water is necessary for the sustenance of life. However, in some situations, clean drinking water may not be readily available. The only water available may be contaminated with contaminants such as dirt and other solid particles, chemicals and biological contaminants like bacteria, viruses, fungi and other parasites. It therefore becomes necessary to purify the water in order to make it safe for drinking. Water may not only purified for drinking purposes but can be purified for other uses such as medical and industrial use.
There are several water purification processes. The type of contamination will determine the appropriate water purification process. The different water purification methods include boiling, filtration, distillation, disinfection (chlorination and iodination) and ultra violet treatment.
Boiling is possibly the easiest and most commonly used water purification process. Boiling will kill any biological contaminants that may be found in the water. The water should be brought to boiling point which is 100 degrees Centigrade (or 212 degrees Fahrenheit) and continuously boiled for at least a couple of minutes to ensure all micro-organisms are killed. However, boiling will not purify water that is contaminated by chemicals. If the water has solid floating particles, it will also need to be filtered to get rid of them.
Filtration is another water purification process. A filter is used to get rid of the contaminants in the water. The most important thing about the filter is the filter pore which determines how much impurities are removed. Larger impurities are much easier to remove than smaller particles. Some contaminants cannot be gotten rid of by using a simple filtration method so advanced filtration methods like reverse osmosis and activated carbon filtration are used.
Activated carbon filtration as a water purification process uses an activated carbon filter. Activated carbon has some electro-charge which is capable of attracting impurities such as chemicals in water. The attraction of the impurities is of two types which are adsorption and catalytic reduction. Adsorption is the process by which organic contaminants are removed while catalytic reduction removes chemicals. Catalytic reduction basically happens because the positively charged ions in activated carbon attract the negatively charged ions in the chemicals.
Distillation is a relatively simple water purification process. It involves boiling water until it starts to evaporate. The steam is then collected and cooled to return to water form leaving the impurities behind.
Disinfection can be done by either using chlorine or iodine. Household bleach that is not scented can be a good way to get the chlorine needed for disinfection. Iodine for water disinfection is sold in tablet form in supermarkets and other stores. This type of water purification process may not be the best to use if the water is contaminated by biological contaminants like giardia. This is because the amount of chlorine or iodine needed to kill it will render the water undrinkable.
Our site has a huge number of articles on the water purification process and how to do it in an emergency situation. Be sure and bookmark us in case a disaster should strike in your area. Also, you may think about purchase of a couple of water purification methods to keep in your home in case of an emergency.